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FreeBSD Quarterly Status Report - First Quarter 2019

FreeBSD Project Quarterly Status Report - 1st Quarter 2019

   As spring leads into summer, we reflect back on what the FreeBSD
   project has accomplished in the first quarter of 2019. Events included
   FOSDEM and AsiaBSDCon, the FreeBSD Journal is now free to everyone,
   ASLR is available in -CURRENT and KPTI can be controlled per-process.
   The run up to 11.3-RELEASE has begun, and a team is applying syzkaller
   guided fuzzing to the kernel, plus so much more. Catch up on many new
   and ongoing efforts throughout the project, and find where you can
   pitch in.
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD Team Reports

     * Continuous Integration
     * FreeBSD Core Team
     * FreeBSD Foundation
     * FreeBSD Release Engineering Team
     * Ports Collection

Projects

     * AXP803 PMIC driver update
     * Broadcom ARM64 SoC support
     * C Runtime changes
     * Capsicum
     * CFT - Package Base
     * ENA FreeBSD Driver Update
     * FreeBSD boot security improvements
     * FUSE
     * Kernel ZLIB Update
     * LLVM's lld as the FreeBSD system linker
     * mlx5 Drivers Update
     * PCI Express Resets
     * Security-Related changes

Architectures

     * FreeBSD/RISC-V Update

Ports

     * FreeBSD GNOME status report
     * FreeBSD KDE status report

Third-Party Projects

     * FreeBSD Wiki Apple Intel Mac mini update
     * Fuzzing FreeBSD with syzkaller
     * sysctlmibinfo API 1.0
     * sysctlview 1.0
     * University of Waterloo Co-operative Education Students
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD Team Reports

   Entries from the various official and semi-official teams, as found in
   the Administration Page.

Continuous Integration

   Links
   FreeBSD Jenkins Instance
    URL: https://ci.FreeBSD.org
   FreeBSD CI artifact archive
    URL: https://artifact.ci.FreeBSD.org/
   FreeBSD Jenkins wiki
    URL: https://wiki.freebsd.org/Jenkins
   freebsd-testing Mailing List
    URL: https://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-testing
   freebsd-ci Repository
    URL: https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-ci
   Tickets related to freebsd-testing@
    URL: https://preview.tinyurl.com/y9maauwg
   Hosted CI wiki
    URL: https://wiki.freebsd.org/HostedCI
   FreeBSD CI weekly report
    URL: https://hackfoldr.org/freebsd-ci-report/

   Contact: Jenkins Admin <jenkins-admin@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Li-Wen Hsu <lwhsu@FreeBSD.org>

   The FreeBSD CI team maintains continuous integration system and related
   tasks for the FreeBSD project. The CI system regularly checks the
   changes committed to the project's Subversion repository can be
   successfully built, and performs various tests and analysis of the
   results. The results from build jobs are archived in an artifact
   server, for the further testing and debugging needs. The CI team
   members examine the failing builds and unstable tests, and work with
   the experts in that area to fix the code or adjust test infrastructure.

   Starting from this quarter, we started to publish CI weekly report at
   freebsd-testing@ mailing list. The archive is available at
   https://hackfoldr.org/freebsd-ci-report/

   We also worked on extending test executing environment to improve the
   code coverage, temporarily disabling flakey test cases, and opening
   tickets to work with domain experts. The details are of these efforts
   are available in the weekly CI reports.

   We published the draft FCP for CI policy and are ready to accept
   comments.

   Please see freebsd-testing@ related tickets for more information.

   Work in progress:
     * Fixing the failing test cases and builds
     * Adding drm ports building test against -CURRENT
     * Implementing automatic tests on bare metal hardware
     * Implementing the embedded testbed
     * Planning for running ztest and network stack tests
     * Help more 3rd software get CI on FreeBSD through a hosted CI
       solution
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD Core Team

   Contact: FreeBSD Core Team <core@FreeBSD.org>

   The FreeBSD Core Team is the governing body of FreeBSD.

   Core initiated a Release Engineering Charter Modernization working
   group. The purpose of the working group is to present (to Core) a
   modernized version of the Release Engineering Charter and a first
   version of a new Release Engineering Team Operations Plan. The group
   hopes to complete its goals and dissolve by 2019-06-30.

   The Core Team invites all members of the FreeBSD community to complete
   the 2019 FreeBSD Community Survey.

   https://www.research.net/r/freebsd2019

   The purpose of the survey is to collect quantitative data from the
   public in order to help guide the project's priorities and efforts. It
   will remain open for 17 days and close at midnight May 13 UTC (Monday
   5pm PDT). (Editor's note: Survey has finished)

   Core voted to approve source commit bits for Johannes Lundberg
   (johalun@) and Mitchell Horne (mhorne@) and associate membership for
   Philip Jocks. Core also voted to revoke Michael Dexter's documentation
   bit.

   After a long lapse of not closing idle source commit bits, core has
   taken in the commit bit for these developers. We thank each for
   contributing to the project as a source committer.
     * Alfred Perlstein (alfred@)
     * Eric Badger (badger@)
     * Daniel Eischen (deischen@)
     * Ermal Luçi (eri@)
     * Tony Finch (fanf@)
     * Justin T. Gibbs (gibbs@)
     * Imre Vadász (ivadasz@)
     * Julio Merino (jmmv@)
     * John W. De Boskey (jwd@)
     * Kai Wang (kaiw@)
     * Luigi Rizzo (luigi@)
     * Neel Natu (neel@)
     * Craig Rodrigues (rodrigc@)
     * Stanislav Sedov (stas@)
     * Thomas Quinot (thomas@)
     * Andrew Thompson (thompsa@)
     * Pyun YongHyeon (yongari@)
     * Zbigniew Bodek (zbb@)
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD Foundation

   Contact: Deb Goodkin <deb@FreeBSDFoundation.org>

   The FreeBSD Foundation is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated
   to supporting and promoting the FreeBSD Project and community
   worldwide. Funding comes from individual and corporate donations and is
   used to fund and manage software development projects, conferences and
   developer summits, and provide travel grants to FreeBSD contributors.

   The Foundation purchases and supports hardware to improve and maintain
   FreeBSD infrastructure and provides resources to improve security,
   quality assurance, and release engineering efforts; publishes marketing
   material to promote, educate, and advocate for the FreeBSD Project;
   facilitates collaboration between commercial vendors and FreeBSD
   developers; and finally, represents the FreeBSD Project in executing
   contracts, license agreements, and other legal arrangements that
   require a recognized legal entity.

   Here are some highlights of what we did to help FreeBSD last quarter:

   We kicked off the year with an all-day board meeting in Berkeley, where
   FreeBSD began, to put together high-level plans for 2019. This included
   prioritizing technologies and features we should support, long-term
   planning for the next 2-5 years, and philosophical discussions on our
   purpose and goals.

   Partnerships and Commercial User Support

   We began the year by meeting with a few commercial users, to help them
   navigate working with the Project, and understanding how they are using
   FreeBSD. We're also in the process of setting up meetings for Q2 and
   throughout the rest of 2019. Because we're a 501(c)(3) non-profit, we
   don't directly support commercial users. However, these meetings allow
   us to focus on facilitating collaboration with the community.

   Fundraising Efforts

   Our work is 100% funded by your donations. We kicked off the year with
   many individual and corporate donations, including donations and
   commitments from NetApp, Netflix, Intel, Tarsnap, Beckhoff Automation,
   E-Card, VMware, and Stormshield. We are working hard to get more
   commercial users to give back to help us continue our work supporting
   FreeBSD. Please consider making a donation to help us continue and
   increase our support for FreeBSD at: www.FreeBSDfoundation.org/donate/.

   We also have the Partnership Program, to provide more benefits for our
   larger commercial donors. Find out more information at
   https://www.FreeBSDfoundation.org/FreeBSD-foundation-partnership-program/
   and share with your companies!

   OS Improvements

   The Foundation improves the FreeBSD operating system by employing our
   technical staff to maintain and improve critical kernel subsystems, add
   features and functionality, and fix problems. This also includes
   funding separate project grants like the arm64 port, porting the
   blacklistd access control daemon, and the integration of VIMAGE
   support, to make sure that FreeBSD remains a viable solution for
   research, education, computing, products and more.

   Over the quarter there were 241 commits from nine Foundation-sponsored
   staff members and grant recipients.

   We kicked off or continued the following projects last quarter:
     * FUSE file system kernel support (update and bug fixes)
     * Linuxulator testing and diagnostics improvements
     * SDIO and WiFi infrastructure improvements
     * x86-64 scalability and performance improvements
     * OpenZFS Online RAID-Z Expansion

   Having software developers on staff has allowed us to jump in and work
   directly on projects to improve FreeBSD like:
     * amd64 and i386 pmap improvements and bugfixes
     * address userland threading library issues
     * improve i386 support to keep the platform viable
     * improve FreeBSD on RISC-V
     * application of the Capsicum sandboxing framework
     * build system improvements and bug fixes
     * respond to reports of security issues
     * implement vulnerability mitigations
     * tool chain updates and improvements
     * adding kernel code coverage support for the Syzkaller
       coverage-guided system call fuzzer
     * improved Syzkaller support for FreeBSD
     * improve the usability of freebsd-update
     * improve network stack stability and address race conditions
     * ensure FreeBSD provides userland interfaces required by
       contemporary applications
     * implement support for machine-dependent optimized subroutines
     * update and correct documentation and manpages
     * DTrace bug fixes
     * update the FreeBSD Valgrind port and try to upstream the changes

   Continuous Integration and Quality Assurance

   The Foundation provides a full-time staff member who is working on
   improving our automated testing, continuous integration, and overall
   quality assurance efforts.

   During the first quarter of 2019, Foundation staff continued improving
   the project's CI infrastructure, working with contributors to fix
   failing build and test cases, and working with other teams in the
   project for their testing needs. In this quarter, we started publishing
   the CI weekly report on the freebsd-testing@ mailing list.

   See the FreeBSD CI section of this report for more information.

   Release Engineering

   The Foundation provides a full-time staff member to oversee the release
   engineering efforts. This has provided timely and reliable releases
   over the last five years.

   During the first quarter of 2019, the FreeBSD Release Engineering team
   continued providing weekly development snapshots for 13-CURRENT,
   12-STABLE, and 11-STABLE.

   In addition, the Release Engineering team published the schedule for
   the upcoming 11.3-RELEASE cycle, the fourth release from the stable/11
   branch, which builds on the stability and reliability of 11.2-RELEASE.

   The upcoming 11.3-RELEASE schedule can be found at:
   https://www.freebsd.org/releases/11.3R/schedule.html

   FreeBSD 11.3 is currently targeted for final release in early July
   2019.

   Please see the FreeBSD Release Engineering Team section of this
   quarterly status report for additional details surrounding the above
   mentioned work.

   Supporting FreeBSD Infrastructure

   The Foundation provides hardware and support to improve FreeBSD
   infrastructure. Last quarter, we continued supporting FreeBSD hardware
   located around the world.

   FreeBSD Advocacy and Education

   A large part of our efforts are dedicated to advocating for the
   Project. This includes promoting work being done by others with
   FreeBSD; producing advocacy literature to teach people about FreeBSD
   and help make the path to starting using FreeBSD or contributing to the
   Project easier; and attending and getting other FreeBSD contributors to
   volunteer to run FreeBSD events, staff FreeBSD tables, and give FreeBSD
   presentations.

   The FreeBSD Foundation sponsors many conferences, events, and summits
   around the globe. These events can be BSD-related, open source, or
   technology events geared towards underrepresented groups. We support
   the FreeBSD-focused events to help provide a venue for sharing
   knowledge, to work together on projects, and to facilitate
   collaboration between developers and commercial users. This all helps
   provide a healthy ecosystem. We support the non-FreeBSD events to
   promote and raise awareness of FreeBSD, to increase the use of FreeBSD
   in different applications, and to recruit more contributors to the
   Project.

   Check out some of the advocacy and education work we did last quarter:
     * Attended FOSDEM 2019 where we: staffed the FreeBSD Stand, sponsored
       the co-located FreeBSD Developer Summit, and gave the 25 Years of
       FreeBSD presentation in the BSD Dev room.

     * Sponsored and presented at SANOG33 in Thimphu, Bhutan

     * Represented FreeBSD at APRICOT 2019 in Yuseong-gu, Daejeon South
       Korea

     * Sponsored the USENIX FAST conference in Boston, MA as an Industry
       Partner

     * Ran our first ever FreeBSD track at SCALE 17x, which included an
       all-day Getting Started with FreeBSD workshop. We were thrilled
       with the turnout of almost 30 participants and received a lot of
       positive feedback. Thanks to Roller Angel who taught the class with
       the help of Deb Goodkin and Gordon Tetlow. We also promoted FreeBSD
       at the FreeBSD table in the Expo Hall.

     * Sponsored, presented, and exhibited at FOSSASIA in Singapore

     * Sponsored AsiaBSDCon 2019

     * Committed to sponsoring Rootconf, BSDCan, and EuroBSDcon

     * Created registration systems for the Aberdeen Hackathon and the
       upcoming 2019 Vienna FreeBSD Security Hackathon

     * Provided FreeBSD advocacy material

     * Provided 3 travel grants to FreeBSD contributors to attend many of
       the above events.

   We continued producing FreeBSD advocacy material to help people promote
   FreeBSD around the world.

   Read more about our conference adventures in the conference recaps and
   trip reports in our monthly newsletters.

   We help educate the world about FreeBSD by publishing the
   professionally produced FreeBSD Journal. We're excited to announce that
   with the release of the January/February 2019 issue, the FreeBSD
   Journal is now a free publication. Find out more and access the latest
   issues at www.FreeBSDfoundation.org/journal/.

   You can find out more about events we attended and upcoming events at
   www.FreeBSDfoundation.org/news-and-events/.

   We also engaged with a new website developer to help us improve our
   website to make it easier for community members to find information
   more easily and to make the site more efficient.

   Legal/FreeBSD IP

   The Foundation owns the FreeBSD trademarks, and it is our
   responsibility to protect them. We also provide legal support for the
   core team to investigate questions that arise.

   Go to www.FreeBSDfoundation.org to find out how we support FreeBSD and
   how we can help you!
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD Release Engineering Team

   Links
   FreeBSD 11.3-RELEASE schedule
    URL: https://www.freebsd.org/releases/11.3R/schedule.html
   FreeBSD development snapshots
    URL: https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/snapshots/ISO-IMAGES/

   Contact: FreeBSD Release Engineering Team <re@FreeBSD.org>

   The FreeBSD Release Engineering Team is responsible for setting and
   publishing release schedules for official project releases of FreeBSD,
   announcing code freezes and maintaining the respective branches, among
   other things.

   During the first quarter of 2019, the FreeBSD Release Engineering team
   published the initial schedule for the upcoming the 11.3-RELEASE.

   FreeBSD 11.3-RELEASE will be the fourth release from the stable/11
   branch, building on the stability and reliability of 11.2-RELEASE.
   FreeBSD 11.3-RELEASE is currently targed for release in early July,
   2019.

   Additionally throughout the quarter, several development snapshots
   builds were released for the head, stable/12, and stable/11 branches.

   Much of this work was sponsored by the FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________

Ports Collection

   Links
   About FreeBSD Ports
    URL: https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/
   Contributing to Ports
    URL: https://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/ports-contributing.html
   FreeBSD Ports Monitoring
    URL: http://portsmon.freebsd.org/index.html
   Ports Management Team
    URL: https://www.freebsd.org/portmgr/index.html

   Contact: René Ladan <portmgr-secretary@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: FreeBSD Ports Management Team <portmgr@FreeBSD.org>

   As always, below is a summary of what happened in the Ports Tree during
   the last quarter.

   During 2019q1, the number of ports dropped slightly to just over
   32,500. At the end of the quarter, we had 2092 open port PRs. The last
   quarter saw 8205 commits from 167 committers. So more PRs were closed
   and more commits were made than in 2018q4.

   During the last quarter, we welcomed Kai Knoblich (kai@) and said
   goodbye to Matthew Rezny (rezny@).

   On the infrastructure side, two new USES were introduced (azurepy and
   sdl) and USES=gecko was removed. The default versions of Lazarus and
   LLVM were bumped to 2.0.0 and 8.0 respectively. Some big port
   frameworks that were end-of-life were removed: PHP 5.6, Postgresql 9.3,
   Qt4, WebKit-Gtk and XPI. Firefox was updated to 66.0.2, Firefox-ESR to
   60.6.1, and Chromium was updated to 72.0.3626.121.

   During the last quarter, antoine@ ran 30 exp-runs for package updates,
   moving from GNU ld to LLVM ld, and switching clang to DWARF4.
     __________________________________________________________________

Projects

   Projects that span multiple categories, from the kernel and userspace
   to the Ports Collection or external projects.

AXP803 PMIC driver update

   Contact: Ganbold Tsagaankhuu <ganbold@FreeBSD.org>

   The AXP803 is a highly integrated PMIC that targets Li-battery (Li-ion
   or Li-polymer) applications. It provides flexible power management
   solution for processors such as the Allwinner A64 SoC. This SoC is used
   by Pinebook.

   The following updates were performed on the AXP803 driver:
     * Enabled necessary bits when activating interrupts. This allows
       reading some events from the interrupt status registers. These
       events are reported to devd via system "PMU" and subsystem
       "Battery", "AC" and "USB" such as plugged/unplugged, battery
       absent, charged and charging.
     * Added sensors support for AXP803/AXP813. Sensor values such as
       battery charging, charge state, voltage, charging current,
       discharging current, battery capacity can be obtained via sysctl.
     * Added sysctl for setting battery charging current. The charging
       current can be set using steps from 0 to 13. These steps correspond
       to 200mA to 2800mA, with a granularity of 200mA/step.
     __________________________________________________________________

Broadcom ARM64 SoC support

   Contact: Michal Stanek <mst@semihalf.com>
   Contact: Marcin Wojtas <mw@semihalf.com>

   The Semihalf team continued working on FreeBSD support for the Broadcom
   BCM5871X SoC series

   BCM5871X are quad-core 64-bit ARMv8 Cortex-A57 communication processors
   targeted for networking applications such as 10G routers, gateways,
   control plane processing and NAS.

   Completed since the last update:
     * iProc PCIe root complex (internal and external buses)
     * OTP (One Time Programmable memory) driver

   In progress:
     * BNXT Ethernet support
     * Crypto engine acceleration for IPsec offloading.

   Todo:
     * Upstreaming of work. This work is expected to be submitted/merged
       to HEAD in the second half of 2019.

   This project was sponsored by Juniper Networks, Inc.
     __________________________________________________________________

C Runtime changes

   Contact: Konstantin Belousov <kib@freebsd.org>

   Several changes where made to the C runtime which generally improves
   the environment provided to an application.

   Fix for libraries with initial exec TLS mode

   Some libraries, most prominent of which is NVidia-provided and thus
   binary-only libGL.so.1, use so called initial exec mode for TLS
   variables access. This is the fastest mode of TLS access, but its
   drawback is that it only reliably work when the main binary is linked
   against the library, i.e. dlopen-ing the library to load it at runtime
   is not guaranteed to work.

   This mode works by placing the TLS variables for objects in one area
   allocated during the executable initialization, which somewhat explains
   the name of the mode. An obvious consequence is that if such library is
   loaded later, there is no space in the TLS area for an application to
   put its TLS variables.

   The FreeBSD dynamic linker is aware of misbehaviour of the app
   builders, and provides some amount of slack in the TLS area to give
   space for such libraries. But it appeared that the initial content of
   the TLS segment from libraries was not distributed among the threads'
   TLS areas, still breaking libraries which use initial exec mode for
   TLS.

   Another issue that somewhat mitigates mis-use of the mode is the
   DF_STATIC_TLS flag in the dynamic section. This flag allows the linker
   to check for the space earlier and avoid loading dependencies if there
   is no total required space. This linker flag was implemented by the BFD
   ld linker, but not by the LLVM lld linker.

   The FreeBSD dynamic linker was fixed to properly distribute TLS
   initialization data to all threads' initial segments, which required
   reasonably extensive per-architecture changes to libc and libthr.
   Simultaneously, LLD was improved to mark libraries using initial exec
   TLS mode with the appropriate flag.

   These measures should make FreeBSD more resilent to improperly linked
   libraries. The most interesting fix is to users of the nvidia libgl
   library, because it cannot be fixed by relinking.

   Use rtld malloc in libthr

   The FreeBSD implementation of mutexes in libthr allocates some memory
   to keep the mutex data needed for mutex initialization. In contrast,
   the malloc implementation used by FreeBSD, jemalloc(3), requires
   working pthread mutexes for operation.

   This creates a chicken-and-egg problem during executable startup, and
   requires jemalloc to provide fragile hacks to make it possible to
   initialize mutexes. This has been a constant source of mismatches on
   imports of new versions of jemalloc.

   The FreeBSD rtld implementation already contained a very light-weight
   malloc implementation, suitable for limited use in pre-C-runtime
   environments. This seemed to be the ideal fit for an allocator for the
   pthread private mutexes memory. By using this allocator, a method to
   address the cyclic dependencies between jemalloc and libthr could
   finally be implemented.

   The entry points in the rtld malloc.c were renamed to avoid a clash
   with the libc exported symbols, and now the file is linked statically
   into libthr, providing an allocator for private mutexes and pthread key
   storage. The later was already switched to direct use of mmap(2) for
   similar reasons. Now less memory is wasted when key storage requires
   less than a page.

   Destructors order bug

   Alexander Kabaev (kan@) noted that C++ destructors for the static
   objects from the linked shared libraries are executed before C++
   destructors of the static objects from the main binary. This was
   verified both for clang++ and g++, but amusingly not for
   __attribute__(((destructor))).

   The bug was introduced when init functions and init arrays for main
   binary startup are called from the rtld instead of csu (C startup code
   linked to the binary, typically from crt1.o). The cause is due to the
   somewhat complicated way of how destructors are called both by
   fini/fini arrays and rtld-registered atexit(3) handler.

   Solution is to register rtld atexit(3) handler before main binary init
   functions are called, using new internal ABI __libc_atexit() function.

   It is amusing that the bug was not noticed for so many years.

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________

Capsicum

   Links
   Capsicum Wiki Page
    URL: https://wiki.FreeBSD.org/Capsicum

   Contact: Enji Cooper <ngie@freebsd.org>
   Contact: Mark Johnston <markj@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Ed Maste <emaste@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Mariusz Zaborski <oshogbo@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Bora Özarslan <borako.ozarslan@gmail.com>

   Three themes for Capsicum work were:
     * Importing Google's Capsicum test suite into FreeBSD
     * Porting and sandboxing openrsync for FreeBSD
     * Applying capsicum to additional base system utilities

   The Googletest-based Capsicum test cases are now integrated into
   FreeBSD. After some discussion with David Drysdale - the main
   maintainer and developer for the Capsicum port on Linux - we decided
   that from now the FreeBSD will be upstream for Capsicum test cases.

   The next major step was sandboxing openrsync. In the course of that
   work we extended our fileargs service with two new functionalities. We
   modified the fileargs service to allow limiting the operations which
   can be performed, and can now delegate lstat to the Casper service.

   Furthermore, openrsync highly depends on the fts API. We spend some
   time in optimizing fts and making it sandbox friendly by introducing
   fts_openat function and removing the need to change the working
   directory to traverse the paths. The changes to the fts API are now in
   the tests phase.

   Moreover, we improved bootstrapping for non-FreeBSD machines. Thanks to
   this work we can now build tools needed to bootstrap FreeBSD which use
   Casper services. In the base system strings is now sandboxed as a
   result.

   We also sandboxed rtsol, rtsold, and savecore.

   We host biweekly Capsicum calls. The notes from the meetings are
   published in FreeBSD's Capsium meeting repository on GitHub. If you
   would like to join the call do not hesitate to send us an email.
     __________________________________________________________________

CFT - Package Base

   Links
   Package Base CFT - FAQ
    URL: https://trueos.github.io/pkgbase-docs/

   Contact: Kris Moore <kmoore@FreeBSD.org>

   The TrueOS project has been working on a Package Base implementation,
   and is pleased to issue its first CFT to the FreeBSD community.

   The TrueOS packaging work has been in development for close to 6
   months, and differs from the original FreeBSD package base effort, in
   that it is an "out of tree" implementation. It allows any version of
   FreeBSD to be packaged, and only requires a patch to poudriere, as well
   as some minor ports enhancements, the first which is currently in
   review. For more information on the current status, please refer to the
   FAQ page.

   Additionally there will be a working-group at BSDCan 2019, and we
   encourage porters to attend and join the discussion.

   This project was sponsored by iXsystems Inc.
     __________________________________________________________________

ENA FreeBSD Driver Update

   Links
   ENA README
    URL: https://github.com/amzn/amzn-drivers/blob/master/kernel/fbsd/ena/README

   Contact: Michal Krawczyk <mk@semihalf.com>
   Contact: Marcin Wojtas <mw@semihalf.com>

   ENA (Elastic Network Adapter) is the smart NIC available in the
   virtualized environment of Amazon Web Services (AWS). The ENA driver
   supports multiple transmit and receive queues and can handle up to 100
   Gb/s of network traffic, depending on the instance type on which it is
   used.

   ENAv2 has been under development for FreeBSD, similar to Linux and
   DPDK. Since the last update internal review and improvements of the
   patches were done, followed by validation on various AWS instances.

   To do:
     * Upstream of the ENAv2 patches

   Recently, AWS released the A1 instances which are arm64 instances. The
   FreeBSD kernel was fixed, so the ENA can be used on those instances
   with no issues. There were changes required in resource activation in
   the ENA driver r345371 and the addition of a missing bus release method
   to the nexus module for aarch64 r345373. With these changes, the ENA
   driver can run on A1 instances without any known issues.

   This project was sponsored by Amazon.com Inc.
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD boot security improvements

   Links
   Veriexec manifest verification in kernel
    URL: https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/345830
   TPM as entropy source
    URL: https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/345438
   UEFI support in libsecureboot
    URL: https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/344840

   Contact: Michal Stanek <mst@semihalf.com>
   Contact: Marcin Wojtas <mw@semihalf.com>
   Contact: Kornel Duleba <mindal@semihalf.com>

   FreeBSD gained TPM 2.0 (Trusted Platform Module) support at the end of
   2018. A kernel configuration option, TPM_HARVEST, was also added to use
   the TPM RNG as system entropy source. When used this way, the TPM can
   be harvested every ten seconds for entropy which is mixed into the OS
   entropy pool. The kernel option is currently disabled by default in
   amd64 GENERIC kernel configuration.

   UEFI Secure Boot support, developed by Semihalf, has been merged with
   sjg's Veriexec support, resulting in a unified library named
   libsecureboot. This library is used for verification of kernel and
   modules by the loader. The library uses BearSSL as the cryptographic
   backend. The library supports loading trusted and blacklisted
   certificates from UEFI (DB/DBx databases) and can use them as trust
   anchors for the verification.

   The library is also used by Veriexec to verify and parse the
   authentication database (called 'manifest') in the kernel. Previously
   the manifest was verified and parsed by a userspace application, then
   sent to the kernel via /dev/veriexec, which was a significant
   limitation and a security weakness.

   To do:
     * Backport to stable branches.

   Special thanks to sjg and Juniper for fruitful cooperation around
   Veriexec and the libsecureboot development.

   This project was sponsored by Stormshield.
     __________________________________________________________________

FUSE

   Contact: Alan Somers <asomers@FreeBSD.org>

   FUSE (File system in USErspace) allows a userspace program to implement
   a file system. It is widely used to support out-of-tree file systems
   like NTFS, as well as for exotic pseudo file systems like sshfs.
   FreeBSD's fuse driver was added as a GSoC project in 2012. Since that
   time, it has been largely neglected. The FUSE software is buggy and
   out-of-date. Our implementation is about 11 years behind.

   The FreeBSD Foundation has agreed to fund a project to improve the
   state of the FreeBSD FUSE driver. So far I've written a test suite for
   the fusefs(5) module, fixed 1 previously reported bug, discovered and
   fixed 6 new bugs, fixed all of fusefs's Coverity CIDs, made some minor
   performance enhancements and done some general cleanup. During the next
   quarter I plan to continue fixing bugs, and I'll also raise the
   driver's API level as high as I can before the quarter runs out. We're
   currently at 7.8; the highest defined level is 7.28.

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________

Kernel ZLIB Update

   Links
   Review D19706
    URL: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D19706

   Contact: Yoshihiro Ota <ota@j.email.ne.jp>

   The FreeBSD system still uses an ancient (over 20 year-old) version of
   zlib (version 1.0.4). The FreeBSD kernel zlib implementation has
   special enhancements only used by netgraph. There is a separate version
   of code derived from unzip 5.12 used to inflate gzip files in the
   kernel which could be replaced with a more modern zlib. More detailed
   information is written in sys/modules/zlib/README in the review.

   In order to use the latest zlib, version 1.2.11, work has been done to
   revisit all existing zlib uses in the system. Most of the code works
   with the newer version of zlib as is. The unzip code will need some
   conversion work to use the newer zlib. A few callers will be made
   simplier by using some newer APIs available in the updated zlib. There
   are some zombie programs that have been broken and I would like to
   delete.

   This will clean up zombie programs and duplicated zlib code. This will
   also make future zlib version updates easier.

   These changes touch some very sensitive areas of the system, such as
   kernel loading, or are architecture specific like armv6/armv7, and also
   touch some legacy code like kgzip+kgzldr on i386. Testers and active
   users of these legacy zlib code are welcomed.
     * armv elf_trampoline Arm up to v5 can boot from gzipped kernel. This
       code is modified to use newer API for simplicity. Please verify
       gzipped kernel still boots with new code (Current code has fall
       back to legacy zlib in case of failure). Please also elaborate how
       to link such kernel, too. I'm still trying to figure that out.
     * netgraph compression/decompression Please help testing and/or teach
       how to test. Netgraph compiles in the FreeBSD zlib version inside.
     * gzipped a.out Does anyone use gzipped a.out executables, still? If
       so, does someone have an easy and safe program to run? Is a.out
       format i386 only?
     * zfs boot Can we boot from gzipped file system today?
     * CTF Checking how I can test.
     __________________________________________________________________

LLVM's lld as the FreeBSD system linker

   Links
   LLD on the FreeBSD Wiki
    URL: https://wiki.freebsd.org/LLD
   lld exp-run            
    URL: https://bugs.freebsd.org/214864

   Contact: Ed Maste <emaste@freebsd.org>

   In FreeBSD-HEAD and 12.0 the default FreeBSD system linker (i.e.,
   /usr/bin/ld) is LLVM's lld, on amd64, arm64, and armv7. For i386 in
   12.0 lld is used as the bootstrap linker (i.e., to build the kernel and
   base system) but it is not enabled as the system linker because of
   multiple issues building FreeBSD ports with it enabled.

   The primary issue affecting i386 with lld is that many ports build
   position-dependent code (i.e., non-PIC) for use in shared libraries.
   This either comes from omitting the -fPIC compiler flag, or using
   hand-written position-dependent assembly. Compared with other CPU
   architectures i386 position-independent code is rather inefficient,
   which may be responsible for port authors making an explicit decision
   to avoid PIC.

   By default lld does not allow position-dependent code in shared objects
   (in particular, it does not permit relocations against read-only
   segments - typically containing the`.text` section).

   Over the last quarter many commits were made to the ports tree to fix
   the build when the system linker is lld - either building PIC code, or
   adding the -znotext linker flag to permit relocations against read-only
   segments, or just switching the port to link with GNU ld if it is
   incompatible with lld in some other way.

   At this point there are only a few dozen open bug reports for issues
   linking ports with lld as the system linker, and I expect FreeBSD 12.1
   to use lld as the system linker on i386 as well.

   Tasks:
     * Fix freepascal/Lazarus ports with lld
     * Triage and address remaining port failures
     * Holistic review of lld workarounds in the ports tree, to identify
       changes that are no longer needed, should be addressed in lld, or
       should be sent upstream

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________

mlx5 Drivers Update

   Links
   Mellanox OFED for FreeBSD Documentation
    URL: http://www.mellanox.com/page/products_dyn?product_family=193&mtag=freebsd_driver

   Contact: Slava Shwartsman, Hans Petter Selasky, Konstantin Belousov <freebsd-drivers@mellanox.com>

   The mlx5 driver provides support for PCI Express adapters based on
   ConnectX-4(LX), ConnectX-5(EX) and ConnectX-6(DX). The mlx5en driver
   provides support for Ethernet and the mlx5ib driver provides support
   for InfiniBand and RDMA over Converged Ethernet, RoCE.

   Following updates done in mlx5 drivers:
     * Added support for ConnectX-6 and ConnectX-6dx devices, which
       support of up to 200Gb/s interface speeds!
     * Added TLS hardware offload support for ConnectX-6dx devices. TLS Tx
       crypto offload is a new feature for network devices. It enables the
       kernel TLS socket to skip encryption and authentication operations
       on the transmit side of the data path, delegating those to the NIC.
       In turn, the network adapter encrypts packets that belong to an
       offloaded TLS socket on the fly. The Mellanox network adapter does
       not modify any packet headers. It expects to receive fully framed
       TCP packets with TLS records as payload. The NIC replaces plaintext
       with ciphertext and fills the authentication tag. The adapter does
       not hold any state beyond the context needed to encrypt the next
       expected packet, i.e. expected TCP sequence number and crypto
       state.
     * Add support for Dynamic Receive Queue Interrupt Moderation. Dynamic
       Interrupt Moderation (DIM) refers to any action made by hardware
       and/or software on run time to control interrupt rate on the
       system. The moderation action itself should not interfere with the
       system's operation and should not require any human interaction. In
       networking, dynamic interrupt moderation is used for controlling
       the rate of interrupts generated by the hardware for multiple
       traffic scenarios.
     * Enhanced support for self-healing mechanism: In a rare occasion
       when Mellanox network adapters fail, due to a firmware bug for
       example, the driver will sense the catastrophic error. As a result
       of this failure detection, the device driver can trigger a firmware
       reset for the device so it can recover - without the need to reboot
       the entire host.
     * Added support for in-driver firmware updating using mlx5tool.

   This project was sponsored by Mellanox Technologies.
     __________________________________________________________________

PCI Express Resets

   Contact: Konstantin Belousov <konstantinb@mellanox.com>

   Sometimes the need to reset a device attached to the system presents
   itself. Preferrably this device reset can be accomplished without
   causing the whole machine to reboot. It is easy to do with USB devices
   if the physical access is available -- you can just re-plug the device.
   For in-chassis devices, built-in, or on add-on cards, it is not
   possible to reset the device with physical action, unless the device is
   hot-plugged. Nonetheless, for typical modern PCIe devices, and most
   built-in PCI-emulation devices, the reset can be initiated using
   software actions.

   If device is a real plugged-in PCIe device, then reset can be initiated
   by disabling and then re-training PCIe-link by the upstream port
   controls. For most PCI devices, which support the PCI power management
   specification, the proven way to accomplish the reset is to put the
   device into state D3 (off) and then return to the previous power state.

   FreeBSD was missing a way to conveniently request user- or
   driver-initiated reset of devices. While it was possible to manually
   fiddle with registers using pciconf, this is impractical for users, and
   requires a lot of boilerplate code from drivers.

   A new BUS_RESET_CHILD() method was added to the newbus bus interface,
   and implementations added for PCIe bridges and PCI devices. The
   libdevctl(3) library call and devctl(8) command provide convenient
   userspace accessors for applications and administrators.

   During the reset, the device driver must stop its operations with the
   device. One way to achieve this is to detach drivers before reset, and
   re-attach after the device afterwards. This is mostly fine for network
   interfaces, but other devices require more coordination to handle
   properly. For example, an NVMe disk device being detached it means that
   all mounted volumes abruptly disapper from VFS view. Due to this, the
   BUS_RESET_CHILD() method allows the caller to select either
   detach/re-attach or suspend/resume driver actions around the reset.

   Mellanox uses the infrastructure to perform reset of the mlx(5) card
   after firmware reset without server reboot. It is believed that 'devctl
   reset' will be more widely useful.

   This project was sponsored by Mellanox Technologies.
     __________________________________________________________________

Security-Related changes

   Contact: Konstantin Belousov <kib@freebsd.org>

   ASLR

   The ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization) patch from review D5603
   was committed into svn. While debate continues about the current and
   forward-looking value ASLR provides, having an implementation in the
   FreeBSD source tree makes it easily available to those who wish to use
   it. This also moves the conversation past the relative merits to more
   comprehensive security controls.

   KPTI per-process control

   The KPTI (Kernel Page Table Isolation) implementation was structured so
   that most selections of page isolation mode were local to the current
   address space. In other words, the global control variable pti was
   almost unused in the code paths, instead the user/kernel %cr3 values
   were directly loaded into registers or compared to see if the user page
   table was trimmed. Some missed bits of code were provided by Isilon,
   and then bugs were fixed and last places of direct use of pti were
   removed.

   Now when the system starts in the pti-enabled mode, proccontrol(1) can
   be used by root to selectively disable KPTI mode for children of a
   process. The motivation is that if you trust the program that you run,
   you can get the speed of non-pti syscalls back, but still run your
   normal user session in PTI mode. E.g., firefox would be properly
   isolated.

   Feature-control bits

   Every FreeBSD executable now contains a bit mask intended for
   enabling/disabling security-related features which makes sense for the
   binary. This mask is part of the executable segments loaded on image
   activation, and thus is part of any reasonable way to authenticate the
   binary content.

   For instance, the ASLR compatibility is de-facto the property of the
   image and not of the process executing the image. The first (zero) bit
   in the mask controls ASLR opt-out. Other OSes (e.g. Solaris) used an
   OS-specific dynamic flag, which has the same runtime properties but
   leaves less bits to consume in the feature-control mask.

   The feature-control mask is read both by kernel and by rtld during
   image activation. It is expected that more features will be added to
   FreeBSD and the mask can be used for enabling/disabling those
   features..

   It is expected that a tool to manipulate the mask will be provided
   shortly, see review D19290.

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________

Architectures

   Updating platform-specific features and bringing in support for new
   hardware platforms.

FreeBSD/RISC-V Update

   Contact: Ruslan Bukin <br@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Mitchell Horne <mhorne@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Mark Johnston <markj@FreeBSD.org>

   Work has continued on RISC-V port in the past quarter.

   Support for transparent superpage promotion was added to the RISC-V
   port, meaning that applications will now automatically use large page
   mappings when possible. Per-CPU pmap activation tracking was added,
   reducing the overhead of various pmap operations. This noticeably
   improves the responsiveness of FreeBSD when running in a multi-CPU
   virtual machine.

   A RISC-V implementation of minidumps was completed. Support for
   debugging RISC-V kernel dumps will land in devel/gdb after the next GDB
   release.

   It is now possible to compile the in-tree LLVM's RISC-V target by
   setting WITH_LLVM_TARGET_RISCV=YES in /etc/src.conf. The use of LLVM to
   compile the RISC-V port is currently experimental and further
   investigation is ongoing.

   Work is ongoing to bring up FreeBSD on SiFive's HiFive Unleashed
   development board now that one has been obtained by a FreeBSD
   developer. We also expect to work on support for a new version of the
   SBI specification.

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation, DARPA, AFRL.
     __________________________________________________________________

Ports

   Changes affecting the Ports Collection, whether sweeping changes that
   touch most of the tree, or individual ports themselves.

FreeBSD GNOME status report

   Links
   GNOME FreeBSD         
    URL: https://freebsd.org/gnome/
   GNOME development Repo
    URL: https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-ports-gnome

   Contact: Koop Mast <kwm@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Eric Turgeon <ericbsd@FreeBSD.org>

   Ports activity in this quarter were:
     * The x11-toolkits/gtk30 port updated to 3.24.5 and later to 3.24.7.
     * The www/webkit2-gtk3 port was updated to 2.24.0.
     * And the old insecure webkit-gtk2 and webkit-gtk3 where finally
       removed.

   Work in progress, the branches are available in the GNOME development
   repo, see the link above.
     * Eric Turgeon is working on MATE 1.22 in the mate-1.22 branch. And
       is almost complete.
     * Charlie Li (IRC: vishwin) is working on a long overdue update of
       the cinnamon desktop. This update is almost complete. The only real
       blocker is that the screensaver can't be unlocked after it
       activates. The work is in the cinnamon branch.

     * Koop Mast works on GNOME 3.32. The desktop is usable apart from gdm
       which is currently non-functional. Due to lack of free time the
       work is going slowly. This work is available in the gnome-3.32
       branch.

   People who are willing to contribute can find us on #freebsd-gnome on
   freenode.
     __________________________________________________________________

FreeBSD KDE status report

   Links
   KDE FreeBSD
    URL: https://freebsd.kde.org/

   Contact: Adriaan de Groot <adridg@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Tobias C. Berner <tcberner@FreeBSD.org>

   The two biggest accomplishements this quarter were:
     * Qt4 and all its consumers have been removed from the ports tree.
     * www/qt5-webengine has been updated from the ancient 5.9.4 to 5.12.x
       by kai@

   Further we have kept the KDE Frameworks, Plasma and Applications ports
   up to date with upstreams releases, which thanks to upstreams'
   FreeBSD-CI uses less and less patches.

   All the kde@ maintained ports (including cmake) have been kept up to
   date with their releases.

   The plans for the next quarter are in no particular order
     * Cleanup PyQt ports and pyqt.mk
     * Improve qt.mk components
     * Update sddm to 0.18.x
     * Implement user management functionality in system settings (write
       non-logind backend)

   People who are willing to contribute can find us on #kde-freebsd on
   freenode, and the kde@FreeBSD.org mailing list. Further we accept
   pull-requests and contributions on
   github.com/freebsd/freebsd-ports-kde.
     __________________________________________________________________

Third-Party Projects

   Many projects build upon FreeBSD or incorporate components of FreeBSD
   into their project. As these projects may be of interest to the broader
   FreeBSD community, we sometimes include brief updates submitted by
   these projects in our quarterly report. The FreeBSD project makes no
   representation as to the accuracy or veracity of any claims in these
   submissions.

FreeBSD Wiki Apple Intel Mac mini update

   Links
   FreeBSD Wiki
    URL: https://wiki.freebsd.org/IntelMacMini

   Contact: Trevor Roydhouse <fbsdwiki@gmx.net>

   The FreeBSD Wiki page for the Apple Intel Mac minis has been
   comprehensively updated over the last quarter to drag it from 2009 into
   2019.

   There are now detailed instructions for installing FreeBSD as the only
   operating system on models from 2007 through 2014 and itemised model
   specific information detailing FreeBSD support.

   If anyone is interested, help is needed to provide more specific
   information for the macmini 1,1 and 6,1 through 8,1 models and to test
   patches for the asmc(4) driver for temperature sensor feedback and for
   setting fan speed. If you would like to help and have access to these
   Mac minis, please contact me.

   Future tasks:
     * Create and test more patches for asmc(4) to cover all Intel Mac
       minis
     * Provide more information for 2006, 2012, 2014 and 2018 Mac minis
     * Instructions for dual boot (macOS/FreeBSD) installations
     __________________________________________________________________

Fuzzing FreeBSD with syzkaller

   Links
   syzkaller
    URL: https://github.com/google/syzkaller

   Contact: Mark Johnston <markj@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Andrew Turner <andrew@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Michael Tuexen <tuexen@FreeBSD.org>
   Contact: Ed Maste <emaste@FreeBSD.org>

   Syzkaller is a coverage-guided system call fuzzer. It was originally
   developed for Linux. It programmatically creates programs consisting of
   sequences of random system calls and executes them in a VM (virtual
   machine). Using feedback from a kernel code coverage facility called
   kcov, syskaller mutates the generated test programs in an attempt to
   expand the executed coverage of code paths within the kernel. Sometimes
   exercising a seldom or infrequently used code path will crash the
   kernel. When syzkaller manages to crash the running kernel in the VM,
   it attempts to generate a minimal test case which reproduces the crash,
   simplifying debugging. Syzkaller is very effective at finding kernel
   bugs and has uncovered hundreds of issues in Linux. Over the past
   couple of years, syzkaller's author, Dmitry Vyukov, has added support
   for other operating systems, including FreeBSD.

   Recently, a number of FreeBSD developers have been using syzkaller to
   find and fix bugs in the FreeBSD kernel. If interested, one can search
   the commit logs for "syzkaller" to find examples. Syzkaller can be run
   on a FreeBSD or Linux host to fuzz FreeBSD running in QEMU instances.
   It can also fuzz FreeBSD instances running on GCE (Google Compute
   Engine). Additionally, Google maintains a dedicated cluster of GCE
   hosts to continuously fuzz the latest builds of several different OS
   kernels. A FreeBSD target was recently added. Subscribe to the
   syzkaller-freebsd-bugs Google Group to receive notifications for newly
   discovered bugs.

   Work is ongoing to improve syzkaller's coverage of FreeBSD's system
   calls. In particular, syzkaller needs to be taught about all of the
   target kernel's entry points and argument types in order to be useful.
   Many of the standard POSIX system calls are already covered, but most
   FreeBSD-specific system calls are not. Similarly, many ioctl(2)
   definitions are missing.

   Some in-progress work aims to add support for bhyve as a VM backend for
   syzkaller, making it easier to fuzz FreeBSD VMs hosted on FreeBSD.
   Currently that can be done using QEMU, but QEMU on FreeBSD lacks
   support for hardware acceleration. See the PR for the implementation.

   Finally, a number of bugs identified by syzkaller have yet to be fixed.
   If you are interested in helping out with any of the above, please mail
   the contacts listed above.

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________

sysctlmibinfo API 1.0

   Links
   gitlab.com/alfix/sysctlmibinfo
    URL: https://gitlab.com/alfix/sysctlmibinfo

   Contact: Alfonso Sabato Siciliano <alfonso.siciliano@email.com>

   Port: devel/libsysctlmibinfo

   The sysctl() system call can get or set the value of a 'property' of
   the system. A 'property' has others info (description, type, label,
   etc.), they are necessary to build an utility like /sbin/sysctl,
   example:

   % sysctl -d kern.ostype
   kern.ostype: Operating system type
   % sysctl -t kern.ostype
   kern.ostype: string

   Primarily sysctlmibinfo wraps the undocumented kernel interface and
   provides an easy C API: sysctlmif_name(), sysctlmif_description(),
   sysctlmif_info(), sysctlmif_label(), sysctlmif_nextnode() and
   sysctlmif_nextleaf(), to retrieve the info of a 'property'.

   Moreover sysctlmibinfo provides a high level API: defines a struct
   sysctlmif_object and has some function: sysctlmif_filterlist(),
   sysctlmif_grouplist() and sysctlmif_tree(), to build lists and trees of
   objects.

   You can use this library to quickly build a custom sysctl utility. For
   example, the core of deskutils/sysctlview (a graphical explorer for the
   sysctl MIB Tree) is just a call to sysctlmif_tree() and a visit to the
   resulting tree to show its sysctlmif_object nodes.

   Note, actually a 'property' is an OID of the sysctl MIB, it is
   implemented by a struct sysctl_oid defined in sys/sysctl.h.
     __________________________________________________________________

sysctlview 1.0

   Links
   gitlab.com/alfix/sysctlview
    URL: https://www.gitlab.com/alfix/sysctlview

   Contact: Alfonso Sabato Siciliano <alfonso.siciliano@email.com>

   Port: deskutils/sysctlview

   The FreeBSD's kernel maintains a Management Information Base where the
   objects are properties to tuning the system using the sysctl() syscall
   and the /sbin/sysctl utility. The sysctlview utility is a "graphical
   sysctl MIB explorer", it depends on gtkmm (to build a GUI) and
   sysctlmibinfo (to retrieve the info from the kernel).

   The version 1.0 provides two "TreeView":
     * "Main" to show 'name', 'description', 'type', 'format' and 'value'
     * "Flags" to show 'name' and a column for each 'flag' defined in
       sys/sysctl.h

   The rows are "clickable" to display others info (e.g., 'label').
   Currently sysctlview can show numeric and string values, the support
   for some opaque value will be added in the future.
     __________________________________________________________________

University of Waterloo Co-operative Education Students

   Contact: Ed Maste <emaste@freebsd.org>

   For the January-April 2019 term the FreeBSD Foundation has again
   brought on two co-operative education (co-op) students from the
   University of Waterloo.

   Gerald Aryeetey is a 2nd year Computer Engineering student. Gerald
   started looking at a FreeBSD tool chain issue - our static library
   archiver (ar) did not read or write archives in the 64-bit format.
   Gerald submitted a libarchive change to support 64-bit archives
   followed by change to FreeBSD's ar to add 64-bit support.

   Gerald later looked at a number of freebsd-update issues in FreeBSD's
   bugzilla database, and submitted many fixes. Around a dozen have been
   committed to FreeBSD, and more are in review.

   Gerald also worked on the FreeBSD Foundation's hardware continuous
   integration effort. The prototype installation is building FreeBSD on a
   commit-by-commit basis and testing on a BeagleBone Black and a Pine64
   LTS. The prototype will be converted to a permanent, public
   installation in the near future, after which additional test devices
   will be added.

   For his final project Gerald intends to write a device driver for the
   Microchip LAN743x PCIe NIC.

   Bora Özarslan is a 3rd year student in Computing and Financial
   Management. Bora's initial focus was also on tool chain issues in
   FreeBSD, starting with improvements or bug fixes in FreeBSD's readelf
   (from the ELF Tool Chain project).

   Bora developed a tool to modify feature control bits in ELF binaries -
   for example, allowing binaries incompatible with ASLR to request to
   opt-out. As part of his readelf work Bora also added support to report
   the status of the feature control bits.

   Bora continued investigating security topics, looking at applying
   Capsicum sandboxing to Kristaps' BSD licensed rsync implementation,
   openrsync. This work required first implementing fileargs_lstat support
   in cap_fileargs (which as now been committed) as well as changes to the
   fts directory hierarchy routines (which have not yet been committed to
   FreeBSD).

   For the rest of the work term Bora will investigate and test unmodified
   Linux Docker containers on FreeBSD, to evaluate the state of
   Linuxulator support.

   This project was sponsored by The FreeBSD Foundation.
     __________________________________________________________________